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Short Term, Superbugs

Superbugs

Superbugs

Superbugs may be defined as microorganisms that have developed resistance to drugs used for their day to day treatment. Emergence of drug resistance to microorganisms was surprise because no one knew how to fight a battle for supremacy with the microbial world. Few points to note about them include but not limited to:

  1. Clostridium difficile-Superbugs

    Prolonged use of antibiotics can allow this common intestinal inhabitant to explode into a lethal infection as the drugs kill off its beneficial rivals in the human gut. Spread via hospital surfaces and human contact.

  2. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

    Strains of some superbugs in this family of Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coliEnterobacter aerogenesEnterobacter cloacaeand Klebsiella pneumoniae, are resistant to antibiotics called carbapenems and even colistin

  3. Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Some strains of this sexually transmitted infection, have developed resistance to the drugs commonly used to treat it

  4. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter

    Acinetobacter baumanniiare soil saprophytes and water, and can survive on human skin and on medical equipment. They can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections and serious blood or wound infections

  5. Drug-resistant Campylobacter

    This bug infects humans through contaminated milk, water or food – especially poultry – causing diarrhea, cramps and fever

  6. Fluconazole-resistant Candida

    Candidais a fungus, not a bacterium. The CDC included it on its list because strains of the fungus are increasingly showing resistance to the drugs commonly used to treat it.

  7. Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs)

    Strains of Escherichia coliand Klebsiella pneumoniae, produce an enzyme that destroys many antibiotics.

  8. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)

    Enterococcinormally live in human intestines and the female genital tract without issue. Some strains have developed resistance to vancomycin,

  9. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

This is saprophytes affects hospital patients, using mechanical ventilation or catheters or with surgical or burn wounds.

  1. Drug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella

    Non-typhoidal Salmonellais a common foodborne pathogen that causes more dangerous infection when it is resistant to common antibiotics. It causes severe, sometimes bloody diarrhea, cramps and fever

  2. Drug-resistant Salmonella typhi

    A member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, these bacteria spread through contaminated food or water or through person-to-person contact.

  3. Drug-resistant Shigella

    Shigella affects young children and is spread through hand contact, food or water. causes painful diarrhea, has been spread largely by travelers and spreads especially quickly in childcare settings and among homeless people and gay and bisexual men

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    aureusis a once-routine infection that has become resistant to several powerful antibiotics. It most often occurs as a localized skin infection, but can become deadly if it enters the lungs or bloodstream, often through surgery or medical equipment.

  5. Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    pneumoniaecan cause pneumonia; ear, sinus and bloodstream infections; and meningitis. Some strains are resistant to multiple drugs, which can be especially dangerous to young children, the elderly and HIV patients.

  6. Drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Mycobacterium tuberculosisis spread through the air and usually infects the lungs, but can also infect organs such as the brain or kidneys. If caught early, the infection is largely treatable, but drug-resistant strains have emerged over the years.

  7. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA)

    These  aureusinfections are resistant to vancomycin, one of the most powerful antibiotics available.

  8. Erythromycin-resistant Group A Streptococcus

    Group A Streptococcusis the most common cause of strep throat in children and adults, and erythromycin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics to treat it.

  9. Clindamycin-resistant Group B Streptococcus

    In newborns/Adults, Group B Streptococcusis a common cause of sepsis, a potentially fatal blood infection.

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AGWU Ezera is the presiding editor and Associate Professor in Medical Microbiology and Immunology @ Kabale University School of Medicine.

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